Lumicon has joined the Optical Structures Inc. This partnership allows Lumicon to bring you quality astronomical telescope accessories at the lowest prices possible. Lumicon filters, in particular, have been widely praised by visual astronomers and astrophotographers alike.
Eyepiece filters are an invaluable astronomical telescope accessory in lunar and planetary observing. They reduce glare and light scattering, increase contrast through selective filtration, increase definition and resolution, reduce irradiation and lessen eye fatigue.
Different filters will act differently, highlighting a rainbow of wavelengths to enhance a variety of features in the night sky. Lumicon understands the needs of budding deep-space visual observers. Their filters are commonly used by astronomers exploring deep-space objects.
The Lumicon Deep Sky Filter is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in observing nebulae. The filter has been enhanced to increase contrast even under light polluted skies, transmitting the visible wavelength spectrum without pesky artificial and natural light pollution.
If you would like to get serious about deep-sky observations, you will more specific filters that only allow a fraction of the wavelength spectrum to pass through.
Many of the Messier objects are enhanced because the filter passes the and oxygen lines as well as the H-Beta line. We have a wide range of Lumicon filters and finders available to help you capture exceptional night sky images. Their Hydrogen-Alpha filters are optimized for monochrome astrophotography. The long-pass filter is ideal for imaging deep-sky objects that appear bright in the infrared wavelength, such as emission nebulae. They are also used to combat heavy light pollution.
Please click here for the latest update. The Deep SkyHydrogen-BetaOxygen IIIand Ultra High Contrast Filters are the result of 20 years of steady design improvements, and continue to deliver the highest performance of all anti-light pollution filters obtainable today.
The following information recommends which filter to use on which celestial objects, and explains how filter transmissions differ. Click here to enlarge image. Deep Sky Filter - Intended for viewing nebulae from light-polluted skies. Comet Filter - Designed to enhance the cyanogen CN frequency found in comet tails. Exit Pupil Specifications: The exit pupil of a telescope is a measure of specific magnification, which differs from absolute magnification, and which determines the surface brightness of an extended object image.
Exit pupil diameter may be expressed as the quotient of eyepiece focal length divided by the telescope's focal ratio. Each Lumicon filter has an optimum eyepiece exit pupil range shown below. Notice: As filter bandpass decreases, optimum exit pupil size tends to increase. To determine the best eyepiece focal length to use with a given filter, simply multiply the Exit Pupil value shown above by your telescope's focal ratio.Cahn ingold prelog double bonds
Filter Construction: Lumicon nebula filters are made using thin-film dielectric coatings on optically flat glass. These exclusively designed dielectric coatings consist of over 30 alternating layers of several different materials. Each layer is about a wavelength of light thick and has a thickness accurate to 2 - 3 angstroms. Lumicon nebula filters include anti-reflection coatings on both sides to prevent ghosting and increase light transmittance.
They also have a hard, electron-beam deposited coating for mechanical protection. Threads are standard for 1" filters. Bandpass: These Lumicon filters reject man-made and natural light pollution. Mercury light pollution occurs at,and nm.3d maya rigged character model
High-pressure sodium streetlights emit at,and nm. Natural airglow occurs at and more weakly at nm. There is a window of greatly reduced light pollution from nm blue to nm green.
The Lumicon Deep Sky Filter has a wide nm bandpass for most of this range nm to yield maximum transmission of light from stars and galaxies. The UHC Filter has a narrow 22nm bandpass through nm. The OIII Filter has a very narrow 11nm bandpass for nm, and the H-beta Filter has the narrowest bandpass of all - only 8nm centered at nm. The narrower the bandpass, the higher the rejection of light pollution and the blacker the skies.
However, a narrower bandpass also means fainter star images. Nevertheless, the Deep Sky Filter has high transmission for the photographic red nebula emission lines.New Lands, Part II, 13B
Nebula Emission Lines: The main visible radiation from emission nebulae consists of doubly ionized oxygen near the wavelength of nm. There is also weaker emission due to hydrogen-beta at nm.The Lumicon UHC filter was designed to better observe and photograph nebulae.
The filter passes three selective emission lines, two doubly ionized oxygen lines nm and nm and H-beta at nm. The effects of city light pollution and skyglow from a bright moon are reduced due to the selective bandpass qualities of the Lumicon UHC Filter. This review is in progressplease return again soon for my full review. Emission nebulae such as the Lagoon Nebula and Omega Nebula are some of my favorite astrophotography targets to photograph, and these targets are what the Lumicon UHC filter was designed for.
The 48mm filter threads on to the nose piece and adapter on my camera, and I can easily insert the imaging train into the focus draw tube of my telescope. The Lumicon UHC filter includes a data sheet that displays the unique emission bands transmission. The data sheet gives me a visual representation of the transmission percentage, and the exact wavelengths that this filter allows to pass through in the visible light spectrum.
Lumicon uses an in-house spectrometer to determine the emission band isolation and light pollution blocking abilities of the filter.
As you can see, the light that the Lumicon UHC filter allows to pass through is isolated to roughly nmnm. There is a tiny amount of light passing through at the nm line H-alphabut at less than 1 percent, I doubt this wavelength will be recorded at all in my images.
The powerfully beautiful and dramatic H-beta wavelength sits at When it comes to astrophotography, the H-beta line is weaker than the popular and effective H-alpha wavelength. However, the H-beta line is useful for visual detection of longer red wavelengths of light that are difficult to observe by eye. This quality will go untested for me personally, as I will only be using the Lumicon UHC filter for astrophotography. Those that choose to use the filter for visual observation of certain nebulae would be able to confirm this.
This data sheet was very interesting to me, and lead to further exploration into advanced filter bandpass technology and their uses. Seeing a list of the exact transmission lines for known light pollution sources was of particular interest to me.
The Lumicon UHC is an effective light pollution filter. What effect do these blocked wavelengths have in your astrophotography images? Have a look at the wavelengths of light that a common high pressure sodium streetlamp emits. The photo below shows the stacked image I created using 28 light frames on the Whirlpool Galaxy. However, the Lumicon UHC filter helped to create contrast between my deep sky target and a washed out city sky.
The lower image shows the same data, after using a color correction technique in Adobe Photoshop. The RGB channels were balanced using a black point of 33, 33, 33, and white point ofThis is after applying my standard color balancing routine to set the black and white points.
All Nebula and light Pollution filter are individually tested and proudly inscribed with the percentage of light transmittance of their primary emission lines. ZWO Filter Savings! Solar In Stock Solar Savings! Explore Scientific Limited Time Sale! Imaging Source Camera on Sale! Lumicon International. Sort By :. Show :. Quick view. Add To Cart. Lumicon - 1. Out of stock.
Lumicon - Hydrogen Beta Filter - 1. Lumicon - Filter Neutral Density 25 1. Lumicon - Dust Seal Ultra Violet 5" - 9. Lumicon - Female T-Thread - 1. Lumicon - Vinyl Dust Cover 1. Lumicon - Yellow Dust Plug 1. Lumicon - Filter 11 Yellow-Green 1. Lumicon - Filter 47 Violet 1.Your question may be answered by sellers, manufacturers, or customers who purchased this item, who are all part of the Amazon community.
Please make sure that you are posting in the form of a question. Please enter a question. The legendary Lumicon 2" OIII narrow band-pass filter isolates just the two doubly ionized oxygen lines and nm lines emitted by diffuse, planetary and faint nebulae. Thus, these faint objects become much more visible against the blackened background of space. Performs well under both light-polluted and dark skies.
Recommended for telescopes 10" or larger in aperture. To ensure that your Lumicon filter remains the World's Best, the strictest quality control standards are employed throughout the production process.
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Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.Nonparametric statistics are statistics not based on parameterized families of probability distributions.
They include both descriptive and inferential statistics. The typical parameters are the mean, variance, etc. Unlike parametric statistics, nonparametric statistics make no assumptions about the probability distributions of the variables being assessed. Non-parametric methods are widely used for studying populations that take on a ranked order (such as movie reviews receiving one to four stars).
The use of non-parametric methods may be necessary when data have a ranking but no clear numerical interpretation, such as when assessing preferences. In terms of levels of measurement, non-parametric methods result in "ordinal" data. As non-parametric methods make fewer assumptions, their applicability is much wider than the corresponding parametric methods.
In particular, they may be applied in situations where less is known about the application in question. Also, due to the reliance on fewer assumptions, non-parametric methods are more robust. Another justification for the use of non-parametric methods is simplicity. In certain cases, even when the use of parametric methods is justified, non-parametric methods may be easier to use.
Due both to this simplicity and to their greater robustness, non-parametric methods are seen by some statisticians as leaving less room for improper use and misunderstanding. Mathematical statistics has substantial overlap with the discipline of statistics. Statistical theorists study and improve statistical procedures with mathematics, and statistical research often raises mathematical questions.
Statistical theory relies on probability and decision theory. Mathematicians and statisticians like Gauss, Laplace, and C. New York: John Wiley and Sons. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Testing Statistical Hypotheses (2nd ed. Theory of Point Estimation (2nd ed. Mathematical Statistics: Basic and Selected Topics.This is precisely what is being done in the t-test for dependent samples, and, as compared to the t-test for independent samples, it always produces "better" results (i.
If these assumptions are clearly not met, then one of the nonparametric alternative tests should be used. Technically, we can apply the t-test for dependent samples to any two variables in our data set. However, applying this test will make very little sense if the values of the two variables in the data set are not logically and methodologically comparable. Following, is an example of a data set that can be analyzed using the t-test for dependent samples.
WCC before WCC after case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 case 5. However, the t-test for dependent samples analysis is performed only on the paired differences"ignoring" the raw scores and their potential differentiation. Thus, the size of this particular difference of 1 will be compared not to the differentiation of raw scores but to the differentiation of the individual difference scores, which is relatively small: 0.Sistemul digestiv la animale referat
Compared to that variability, the difference of 1 is extremely large and can yield a highly significant t value. If there are more than two "correlated samples" (e. The repeated measures ANOVA can be considered a generalization of the t-test for dependent samples and it offers various features that increase the overall sensitivity of the analysis. The breakdowns analysis calculates descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables in each of a number of groups defined by one or more grouping (independent) variables.
In the following example data set (spreadsheet), the dependent variable WCC (White Cell Count) can be broken down by 2 independent variables: Gender (values: males and females), and Height (values: tall and short). GENDER HEIGHT WCC case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 case 5.
The resulting breakdowns might look as follows (we are assuming that Gender was specified as the first independent variable, and Height as the second). For example, in the above example, you see the means for "all males" and "all females" but you do not see the means for "all tall subjects" and "all short subjects" which would have been produced had you specified independent variable Height as the first grouping variable rather than the second.
Statistical Tests in Breakdowns. If you are interested in differences concerning the means, then the appropriate test is the breakdowns one-way ANOVA (F test). If you are interested in variation differences, then you should test for homogeneity of variances.Munchkin easy close baby gate extension
Other Related Data Analysis Techniques. Although for exploratory data analysis, breakdowns can use more than one independent variable, the statistical procedures in breakdowns assume the existence of a single grouping factor (even if, in fact, the breakdown results from a combination of a number of grouping variables). Thus, those statistics do not reveal or even take into account any possible interactions between grouping variables in the design.
For example, there could be differences between the influence of one independent variable on the dependent variable at different levels of another independent variable (e. You can explore such effects by examining breakdowns "visually," using different orders of independent variables, but the magnitude or significance of such effects cannot be estimated by the breakdown statistics.
Post-Hoc Comparisons of Means. Usually, after obtaining a statistically significant F test from the ANOVA, one wants to know which of the means contributed to the effect (i. One could of course perform a series of simple t-tests to compare all possible pairs of means. However, such a procedure would capitalize on chance.
This means that the reported probability levels would actually overestimate the statistical significance of mean differences. Without going into too much detail, suppose you took 20 samples of 10 random numbers each, and computed 20 means. Then, take the group (sample) with the highest mean and compare it with that of the lowest mean.
The t-test for independent samples will test whether or not those two means are significantly different from each other, provided they were the only two samples taken.
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